Over 50 models/framework/concepts for restructuring the state proposed by different individuals, political parties, and organisations have been reviewed in terms of objectives, principles/criteria used, types and sources of data used, the geographical delineation of federal model, and devolution of authority. Among the models reviewed, only 20 have a clear geographical delineation of federal units with defined boundaries. The main objectives behind the proposal to restructure the state into federal units can be grouped into two broad categories: I) resolving problems of socio-cultural disparity, enhancing ethnic/cultural identity with autonomy, and the right to self-determination; and 2) addressing the challenges of development and achieving regional balance by promoting economic cooperation and preserving territorial integrity through decentralisation and devolution of power and authority. Models based on the second set of objectives have adopted a nested approach with emphasis on ethnic/language identity at the regional/district level and geographical complementarities at the federal.

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